New PDF release: A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science

By P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai

ISBN-10: 8122426913

ISBN-13: 9788122426915

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34 A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering Experiment No. ___________________ Date ___________________ DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDE Aim To determine the amount of chloride (in the form of Cl–) present in the given water sample by Mohr’s method. Principle If water containing chlorides is titrated with silver nitrate solution, chlorides are precipitated as white silver chloride. Potassium chromate is used as indicator, which supplies chromate ions. As the concentration of chloride ions approaches extinction, silver ion concentration increases to a level at which reddish brown precipitate of silver chromate is formed indicating the end point.

30 A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering Experiment No. ___________________ Date ___________________ DETERMINATION OF pH Aim To determine the pH of given samples using (1) universal indicator (2) pH paper, and (3) digital pH meter. Principle pH value of water indicates the hydrogen ion concentration in water and concept of pH was put forward by Sorenson (1909). pH is expressed as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles/ litre at a given temperature.

Repeat steps 2 to 5 described above. 8. Measure the absorbance of each solution in a spectrophotometer at 508 nm against the reference blank prepared by treating distilled water as described in steps 6 and 7. Prepare a calibration graph taking meter reading on y-axis and concentration of iron on x-axis. 9. For visual comparison, pour the solution in 100 mL tall form Nessler tubes and keep them in a stand. 10. Mix the sample thoroughly and measure 50 mL into a conical flask. 11. Add 2 mL conc. hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 1mL hydroxylamine solution.

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A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering by P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai


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