By Geoff Der, Brian S. Everitt
Easily Use SAS to supply Your Graphics
Diagrams, plots, and different varieties of pictures are vital elements in approximately all stages of statistical research, from the preliminary evaluation of the knowledge to the choice of acceptable statistical types to the prognosis of the selected versions after they were suited to the knowledge. Harnessing the complete photographs features of SAS, A guide of Statistical photographs utilizing SAS ODS covers crucial graphical equipment wanted in each statistician’s toolkit. It explains tips on how to enforce the tools utilizing SAS 9.4.
The guide exhibits easy methods to use SAS to create many sorts of statistical portraits for exploring info and diagnosing geared up types. It makes use of SAS’s more recent ODS photographs all through as the program bargains an a variety of benefits, together with ease of use, top of the range of effects, constant visual appeal, and handy semiautomatic graphs from the statistical approaches.
Each bankruptcy bargains graphically with a number of units of instance information from a large choice of components, comparable to epidemiology, medication, and psychology. those examples illustrate using photograph screens to offer an outline of knowledge, to indicate attainable hypotheses for trying out new info, and to interpret geared up statistical versions. The SAS courses and knowledge units can be found online.
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Extra info for A handbook of statistical graphics using SAS ODS
For different types of plots a statement other than scatter is used. 2 shows some xy plots that could be generated by sgplot. Most of these will be illustrated in later chapters. 2 xy Plots Using Sgplot Plotting Statement Type of Plot scatter Scatterplot – Data values plotted series Line plot – Data values joined with lines step Step plot – Data values joined with stepped lines needle Needle plot – A scatterplot with a line joining the value to the baseline reg Regression plot – A scatterplot with a regression line, or curve fitted loess As reg but with a locally weighted regression curve added pbspline As reg with penalised Beta spline smoothing curve fitted bubble Bubble plot – A scatterplot with bubbles that are proportional in size to the value of a third variable highlow High low close – A set of lines each joining two values on one of the axes with an optional mark at a third value band Band – A band, usually a confidence band vector Vector – For plotting arrows or lines at x,y locations 22 ◾ A Handbook of Statistical Graphics Using SAS ODS For line plots and step plots the points will be plotted in the order in which they occur in the dataset, so it is usually necessary to sort the data by the x-axis variable first.
Limits of one standard deviation are also to be drawn on the plot (limitstat=stddev); the other possibilities are clm for confidence limits and stderr for standard errors. When the limitstat value is stddev or stderr, the numstd= option can be used to specify the number of standard deviations or standard An Introduction to ODS Graphics ◾ 25 errors to be plotted. The default is 1. 3. There is no limit line for decade 30 as there is only one person in this age range. The vbar and hbar statements work in a very similar way to vline and hline and can produce a wide range of bar plots, particularly when used with the group option as in the following example.
The category axis is also ordered in descending order of the response. 6. The ordered dot plot gives a clear picture of the mortality rates and how they increase from Canada to Rwanda in various regions of the world and the disparities in the same region, for example, in South America where Argentina has a relatively low mortality rate and Bolivia has one of the highest rates worldwide. 1. 7. 6 possibly because its data-ink ratio (see Tufte, 1983) is lower than that of the dot plot. It also illustrates a common problem with vertical bar charts: there may not be enough space for the category labels, although the fitpolicy=rotate option does a relatively good job of dealing with the problem.
A handbook of statistical graphics using SAS ODS by Geoff Der, Brian S. Everitt