By Alexandre Mebazaa, Mihai Gheorghiade, Faiez Zannad, Joseph E. Parrillo
For a long time, there was loads of paintings performed on persistent congestive middle failure whereas acute middle failure has been thought of a tough to deal with and hopeless syndrome. even though, in recent times acute middle failure has develop into a turning out to be sector of analysis. there was substantial quantities of recent facts pronounced and lots of new recommendations were proposed within the final 3-4 years taking a look at the epidemiology, diagnostic and therapy of acute center failure.
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S. 2 potentially modiﬁable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction, which found that the same nine risk factors were responsible in all countries, with cigarette smoking and elevated lipids being the most important two. Public health practices aimed at controlling these factors are more advanced in Australia and New Zealand6. S. S. (Fig. 1)7. S. and Japan. The Thai population have lower prevalence of CHD and adjustable risk factors than in other developing countries8. It can be assumed that genetic factors play some role, in that certain ethnic groups like the Okinawans are noted for their longevity and low rate of heart disease.
It would appear that differences in management are dictated by available resources rather than cultural. Even the wealthier countries like Japan and Australia have considerable challenges in providing currently available therapies in the treatment of heart failure—the cost burden of cardiac resynchronization therapy and automatic implantable deﬁbrillators in CHF being examples. Some of the new drugs used in AHFS cost in excess of $1000 (US) per treatment, well beyond the reach of many. A more educated population becomes aware of these more expensive options mentioned in the heart failure literature.
Circulation 2006;113:1693–1701. Aaronson KD, Schwartz JS, Chen TM, Wong KL, Goin JE, Mancini DM. Development and prospective validation of a clinical index to predict survival in ambulatory patients referred for cardiac transplant evaluation. Circulation 1997;95:2660–2667. Levy WC, Mozaffarian D, Linker DT, et al. The Seattle Heart Failure Model: prediction of survival in heart failure. Circulation 2006;113:1424–1433. Lee DS, Tu JV, Juurlink DN, et al. Risk-treatment mismatch in the pharmacotherapy of heart failure.
Acute Heart Failure by Alexandre Mebazaa, Mihai Gheorghiade, Faiez Zannad, Joseph E. Parrillo