By Ulf Dieckmann, Johan A. J. Metz, Maurice W. Sabelis, Karl Sigmund
This monograph takes inventory of our present wisdom at the evolutionary ecology of infectious illnesses, and units out the targets for the administration of virulent pathogens. through the textual content, the elemental strategies and methods underlying the versions are conscientiously defined in a special sequence of built-in bins.
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Extra info for Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management
5 Role of Genetic Diversity The interplay between parasite virulence and the costs of host resistance is an essential mechanism responsible for maintaining polymorphism in many ecological systems. Any mechanism capable of generating or increasing host genetic diversity may provide a way to escape parasite attack, because parasites generally focus on the most common genotype (Anderson and May 1991). The link between sexual reproduction of hosts and parasitism is thus worth attention, because sexual reproduction and the reassortment of genetic material can have a dramatic impact on the long-term evolutionary dynamics of host–parasite interactions (Ebert and Hamilton 1996; Ebert and Herre 1996).
Similarly, with regard to the effects of pathogen durability in the external environment, Bonhoeffer et al. (1996) concluded that increased durability does not result in an evolutionary increase of virulence, but their model did not distinguish the two categories of transmission central to the sit-and-wait hypothesis. Transmission that is attributable to the mobility of susceptible hosts (“sit-and-wait” transmission, dependent on durable stages in the external environment) must be separated from the direct transmission attributable to the mobility of infected individuals.
1982; May and Anderson 1983a; Frank 1996c). 3). 4). 5 discusses possible generalizations of our approach and concludes with ramifications for the goal of virulence management. 2 Virulence Depending on Transmission Modes A major interest in the evolutionary trade-off approach stems from considering different modes of disease transmission. Virulence is predicted to be particularly high when the transmission mode allows pathogens to be readily transmitted, even when hosts are entirely immobilized by illness (Ewald 1983, 1994a).
Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management by Ulf Dieckmann, Johan A. J. Metz, Maurice W. Sabelis, Karl Sigmund