By Thomas Paterson, J. Garry Clifford, Robert Brigham, Michael Donoghue, Kenneth Hagan
This best-selling textual content offers the simplest synthesis of present scholarship on hand to stress the subject of expansionism and its manifestations.
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Extra info for American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 1: To 1920
Ironically, Emperor Joseph resented French interference, and when the opportunity presented itself in the summer of 1781, he returned the favor and offered to mediate between Britain and France. Russia also joined in the mediation offer. Since it came at a low point in the military struggle in America, Vergennes might have felt compelled to accept Austro-Russian mediation (the terms would not have recognized American independence) in 1781 had not English king George III stubbornly resisted any solution short of complete submission by the American colonies.
By 1783 France had expended some 48 million livres on the war for American independence, a struggle no longer confined to North America. ”60 What if ... France had not formally allied with the United States beginning in 1778? The American victory at Saratoga had prompted the Comte de Vergennes to conclude the alliance with Benjamin Franklin in February 1778. It also encouraged London to seek reconciliation by repealing prewar taxes and offering Americans virtual home rule within the British Empire.
Government. Spanish America also loomed as a new market in the 1780s. Shipments of wheat, flour, and some reexported manufactures went to Cuba, Venezuela, and Argentina, and in particular to Santo Domingo, which served as an entrepôt for New Orleans, where American smuggling flourished as never before. ”101 Although most of this trade with Latin America remained in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, by 1788 American whalers and China traders had reached the west coast of South America, where they took on pelts and specie for the Asian market.
American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 1: To 1920 by Thomas Paterson, J. Garry Clifford, Robert Brigham, Michael Donoghue, Kenneth Hagan