By David Banks
Using the warmth kept within the shallow subsurface for house heating (ground resource warmth) is typical in North the USA and plenty of eu countries, reminiscent of Sweden, and is considered an important and trustworthy 'green' area heating know-how. in lots of international locations, together with Britain, the know-how continues to be poorly understood and below used. this case is ready to alter, besides the fact that, with the united kingdom marketplace for floor resource warmth pumps starting to be at over a hundred% each year. This booklet deals useful information and may equip engineers, planners and geologists with the basic abilities to evaluate and enforce this new know-how and to introduce them to the technology in the back of thermogeology.
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Extra resources for An introduction to thermogeology: ground source heating and cooling
In 2005, the capacity for electricity generation by turbine as Nesjavellir was 120 MWe . The waste steam from the turbines is condensed and the heat exchanged to cold groundwater from a separate wellﬁeld, in turn raising its temperature to around 85◦ C. 11b). a. ‘enhanced geothermal systems’) In the discussions above, we have blithely assumed that if we drill into a geothermal reservoir, we will ﬁnd a geothermal ﬂuid (water and/or steam) that we can extract and utilise. However, some geothermal reservoirs have rather low permeability and we cannot extract large volumes of natural ﬂuid from them.
11a and b show schematic diagrams for the Nesjavellir high-enthalpy geothermal ﬁeld in Iceland and for the other ﬁelds contributing to the Reykjavik district-heating scheme (Lund, 2005). Note that the Nesjavellir geothermal wells produce over 1600 L s−1 of water at over 200◦ C and 14 bar. In 2005, the capacity for electricity generation by turbine as Nesjavellir was 120 MWe . The waste steam from the turbines is condensed and the heat exchanged to cold groundwater from a separate wellﬁeld, in turn raising its temperature to around 85◦ C.
Drilling proceeded into the granite until, at 410 m, a major fracture was encountered (the drilling bit appeared to drop through a void of some 50 cm aperture). Water entered the borehole from this fracture and its level eventually stabilised around 10 m below the ground level. The potential short-term yield of this horizon exceeded 16 L s−1 , comprising a hypersaline sodium–calcium–chloride brine (Paul Younger, pers. , 2007). Drilling continued and, despite high bit attrition and corrosion rates, eventually terminated at 995 m.
An introduction to thermogeology: ground source heating and cooling by David Banks