By John Morton
This ebook contains 15 programming and constructional tasks, and covers the variety of AVR chips presently to be had, together with the hot Tiny AVR. No earlier event with microcontrollers is believed. John Morton is writer of the preferred PIC: your own Introductory path, additionally released by way of Newnes. *The hands-on manner of studying to exploit the Atmel AVR microcontroller *Project paintings designed to place the AVR via its paces *The in simple terms e-book designed to get you up-and-running with the AVR from sq. one
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Sometime later the arbiter will assert the corresponding GNT# indicating that this master is next in line to use the bus. Only one GNT# signal can be asserted at any instant in time. The master agent who sees his GNT# asserted may initiate a bus transaction when it detects that the bus is idle. The bus idle state is defined as both FRAME# and IRDY# de-asserted. Figure 2-2 is a timing diagram illustrating how arbitration works when two masters request use of the bus simultaneously. 22 Arbitration REQ# Device 1 Device 2 Device 3 Device 4 GNT# REQ# GNT# Arbiter REQ# GNT# REQ# GNT# Figure 2-1: Arbitration process under PCI.
Disconnect The target may terminate a transaction with a Disconnect if it is unable to meet the maximum latency requirements. There are two possibilities — either the target is prepared to execute one last data 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 CLK FRAME# IRDY# TRDY# DEVSEL# STOP# Disconnect B Disconnect A Figure 3-7: Target disconnect — with data. 48 4 Bus Protocol phase or it is not. If TRDY# is asserted when STOP# is asserted, the target indicates that it is prepared to execute one last data phase. This is called a “Disconnect with data”.
26 Arbitration Latency When a bus master asserts REQ#, a finite amount of time expires until the first data element is actually transferred. This is referred to as bus access latency and consists of several components as shown in Figure 2-4: Master Asserts REQ# Master Receives GNT# Arbitration Latency Targets Detect FRAME# Acquisition Latency Target Asserts TRDY# Initial Target Latency Bus Access Latency Figure 2-4: Components of bus access latency. Arbitration Latency. The time from when the master asserts REQ# until it receives GNT#.
AVR: An Introductory Course by John Morton