By Stanley Cohen
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At present, it is unclear whether the monocyte is required for the production of the factor by lymphocytes or if the lymphocytes produce a lymphokine that induces monocytes to secrete the activity responsible for cartilage destruction. The ability of serum to inhibit this factor suggests that it may have enzymatic activity. This soluble mediator may be of significance in the immunopathogenesis of articular diseases. Another important cell in the inflammatory process, especially in the reparative stage, is the fibroblast.
Several inves tigators have found mediator activities in the blood, lymph, synovial fluid, exudates, and tissue reaction sites in human and experimental animals. Macrophage inhibition factor (MIF) or MIF-like activity was first described by Krejci et al. ) challenge with high doses of antigen. This report was followed by several others documenting serum MIF. v. injection of an antigen bolus. , the one receiving the high dose of antigen, showed no skin reactivity to antigen nor were there lymphocytes capable of producing MIF in vitro.
Lymphokine production may well represent the rate-limiting step in the development of cell-mediated immune reactions (Valdimarsson and Gross, 1973). Recent studies have shown that injection of lymphokines into animals can markedly affect the macrophage disappearance reaction (MDR). As described previously, this reaction is a manifestation of cellular immun ity that results in the prompt disappearance of macrophages found in nonspecific peritoneal exudates following intraperitoneal antigen chal lenge in appropriately sensitized animals.
Biology of the Lymphokines by Stanley Cohen