By Thomas Scheper, P. Bajpai, P.K. Bajpai, D. Dochain, N.N. Dutta, A.C. Ghosh, R.K. Mathur, A. Mukhopadhyay, M. Perrier, P.L. Rogers, H.S. Shin, B. Wang
This quantity offers with such themes as realities and traits in enzymatic prebleaching of Kraft pulp, biotransformation for l-ephedrine creation, inclusion our bodies and purification of proteins in biologically energetic kinds, and extraction and purification of cephalosporin antibiotics.
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The biotransformation process which involves the condensation of an 'active acetaldehyde' (from pyruvic acid) and benzaldehyde is shown in Fig. 2. The production of the L-PAC is catalysed by the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and can be associated with benzyl alcohol by-product formation, due to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase(s) (ADH) and/or other non-specific oxidoreductases. Some traces of benzoic acid as a by-product have also been reported. Previous studies have reported concentrations of 10-12 g 1-1 L-PAC in batch culture with free cells [20, 21] and with immobilised yeast [22, 23].
Acknowledgements. We thank various investigators for sharing their papers awaiting publication as well as unpublished results; this has allowed us to extend coverage somewhat beyond late 1994. We also thank Mr. S. Gill for typing the manuscript. 11 References 1. Rydholm AA (1965) Chemical pulping. In: Pulping Processes Wiley Interscience, New York, p 575 2. Sanyer M and Chidester CH (1963) Manufacture of wood pulp. In: Chemistry of Wood, Browing BL (ed), Wiley Interscience, New York, p 441 3. Gierer J (1970) The reaction of lignin during pulping: A description and comparison of conventional pulping processes.
It was found that xylanases improved bleachability in both the delignification and brightening stages while mannanases acted by a different mechanism and were beneficial mainly to delignification. Improvements were seen in both stages when the two enzymes were used together. Xylanase pretreatment has led to reductions in effluent adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) and dioxin concentrations due to reduced chlorine requirement to achieve a gi,)en brightness [83-85]. The level of AOX in effluents was significantly lower for xylanase pretreated pulps compared to conventionally bleached controlpulps  (Table 11).
Biotreatment, Downstream Processing and Modelling by Thomas Scheper, P. Bajpai, P.K. Bajpai, D. Dochain, N.N. Dutta, A.C. Ghosh, R.K. Mathur, A. Mukhopadhyay, M. Perrier, P.L. Rogers, H.S. Shin, B. Wang